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Coenzyme Q10 (CAS: 303-98-0): Its Efficacy and Cross-Industry Applications

Time:2024-06-13 Hits:819
Coenzyme Q10, commonly known as ubiquinone-10, is a naturally occurring substance in the human body, predominantly found in organs like the heart, liver, kidneys, and pancreas. This fat-soluble, vitamin-like compound is synthesized naturally by the body and plays a crucial role in aerobic cellular respiration, serving as a pivotal component in the energy metabolism process of the mitochondrial electron transfer respiratory chain.
 
The significance of Coenzyme Q10 lies in its pivotal function in the production of cellular energy. Specifically, it contributes to the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary molecule responsible for intracellular energy transfer.
 
Supplements containing Coenzyme Q10 may offer benefits for various health conditions, ranging from heart failure and hypertension to diabetes, certain neurodegenerative diseases, and fertility issues. Research has indicated that these supplements can enhance heart function, improve sperm quality, promote youthful skin, boost athletic performance, aid in diabetes management, and mitigate oxidative damage and inflammation in lung diseases.
 
Coenzyme Q10 supplements are available in various forms, such as tablets, softgels, and capsules. They contain two primary forms of the compound: ubiquinol and ubiquinone. Among these, ubiquinol is the more readily absorbed form.
 
 
Product
CAS
Level
Packaging
Coenzyme Q10
303-98-0
Food Grade
1Kg; 25Kg
Coenzyme Q10
303-98-0
Cosmetic Grade
1Kg; 25Kg
Coenzyme Q10
303-98-0
Pharmaceutical Grade
100g; 1Kg
 
 
Basic Properties
Chemical formula: C59H90O4
Molecular weight: 863.36
CAS: 303-98-0
Melting point: 48-52ºC
Solubility: easily soluble in chloroform, benzene, acetone, ether, slightly soluble in ethanol, insoluble in water
Stability: easily decomposed by light
 
 
Effects of Coenzyme Q10
Antioxidant Properties:
Coenzyme Q10 is a potent antioxidant that efficiently eliminates cellular oxygen free radicals, exhibiting both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It plays a crucial role in mitochondrial, interstitial, and plasma lipid metabolism, preventing lipid and protein peroxidation and scavenging free radicals. Its antioxidant capabilities surpass vitamin E, thus safeguarding cells from oxidative stress.
 
Cardioprotective Effects:
In medical practice, Coenzyme Q10 is extensively used to treat cardiovascular diseases. It enhances myocardial cell energy, alleviates symptoms like angina pectoris and arrhythmias, safeguards the heart from damage caused by free radicals and peroxidation, and reduces the risk of sudden cardiac events. Furthermore, it improves metabolic issues such as blood pressure and blood sugar regulation.
 
Benefits for Reproductive Cells:
Coenzyme Q10 significantly impacts reproductive cells, positively influencing the quality and development of eggs, sperm, and embryos.
 
Enhancing Brain Function:
Coenzyme Q10 can boost memory and reaction speed, alleviate neurasthenia, and potentially prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease.
 
Combating Fatigue:
Coenzyme Q10 plays a vital role in the mitochondrial energy conversion system, enabling cells to maintain a healthy and optimal state. This ensures that the body remains energetic, vibrant, and mentally sharp.
 
 
Medical Applications
Application of Coenzyme Q10 in Cardiovascular Diseases
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) possesses remarkable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, significantly reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases by mitigating inflammation and oxidative stress. Extensive clinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of CoQ10 supplementation in addressing cardiovascular conditions like heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction. Furthermore, it aids in managing risk factors such as hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Boasting excellent safety and tolerability, CoQ10 not only elevates plasma CoQ10 levels but also enhances the prognosis of coronary artery bypass surgery, prevents atherosclerosis, reduces vascular sclerosis, and bolsters endothelial function. Additionally, CoQ10 activates the AMPK pathway, regulates lipid metabolism, combats non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), effectively manages hyperlipidemia and fatty liver symptoms, thereby exhibiting vast cardiovascular protective and therapeutic potential.
 
Coenzyme Q10 and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a multifaceted disease encompassing not just lipid deposition in arteries but also inflammation, impaired autophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and excessive free radical generation. Given its redox and signaling capabilities, CoQ10 theoretically reverses the cellular alterations observed in atherosclerosis. Consequently, CoQ10 supplementation may assist in rectifying these pathological changes and alleviate symptoms associated with atherosclerosis and aging.
 
CoQ10 and Degenerative Diseases Impacting Lifespan
CoQ10 has exhibited promising results in delaying the progression of degenerative diseases that impact lifespan, particularly cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and liver disease. Research indicates that CoQ10 supplementation, especially when combined with selenium, can significantly reduce the risk of mortality among patients.
 
The Cardioprotective and Hepatoprotective Properties of CoQ10
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), renowned for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, possesses significant cardioprotective benefits. However, its limited oral bioavailability has hampered its widespread application in cardiac health. To address this, researchers have nanoencapsulated CoQ10 within nanoemulsions, often coated with chitosan or a combination of chitosan and hyaluronic acid, enhancing its bioavailability and stability. This innovative approach has significantly improved the viability of hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes, exhibiting robust antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, it has protected the heart and liver from the toxic effects of drugs like doxorubicin and trastuzumab, achieving this by reducing lipid peroxidation and the expression of inflammatory mediators such as leukotriene B4 and p65/NF-κB.
 
The Role of CoQ10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease
Coenzyme Q (CoQ), a crucial component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an antioxidant in the plasma membrane and lipoproteins, is endogenously produced by all cells through a tightly regulated mitochondrial multiprotein complex pathway. Deficiencies in CoQ can result in reduced concentrations and/or heightened oxidative stress. Supplementing with Coenzyme Q10 has demonstrated positive effects on mitochondrial deficiency syndromes and symptoms of aging, primarily through enhancing bioenergetics. Furthermore, CoQ10's antioxidant properties can alleviate symptoms of cardiovascular disease and inflammation. There is compelling evidence that CoQ10 supplementation may be beneficial for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, kidney disease, and human fertility. However, further clinical trials are required to validate these promising findings.
 
CoQ10 and Nervous System Health in Aging
Coenzyme Q10 holds promise in preventing aging-related disorders and diseases of the nervous system. Its neuroprotective properties and antioxidant capabilities may provide vital support to mitigate age-induced changes in the nervous system. However, more research is necessary to fully understand the mechanisms and potential applications of CoQ10 in this context.
 
The Inhibitory Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Glutamate Release from Nerve Endings
A study was conducted to examine the influence of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the endogenous glutamate release from nerve terminals in the rat cerebral cortex, along with its underlying mechanisms. The research revealed that CoQ10 effectively suppressed the glutamate release triggered by the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Furthermore, CoQ10 hindered the activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (Ca(v)2.2 and Ca(v)2.1) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways (ERK1/2 and synapsin I) by reducing the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration due to depolarization. Notably, experiments showed that the inhibitory effect of CoQ10 on glutamate release was significantly diminished in mice lacking synapsin I, suggesting that CoQ10 exerts its inhibitory action by modulating these channels and signaling pathways.
 
Neuroprotective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Ferroptosis, an emerging form of iron-dependent cell death, is closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Recent research has highlighted the neuroprotective benefits of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). By inhibiting the accumulation of labile iron and upregulating the levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), GA prevents ferroptosis in mouse neuronal cells, thus unveiling a novel mechanism for GA's neuroprotective actions mediated by CoQ10.
 
Coenzyme Q10 Restores Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in Alzheimer's Disease
Alterations in neural stem cells (NSCs) are intricately linked to Alzheimer's disease, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway plays a pivotal role in neuronal cell survival. CoQ10 has been found to restore the proliferation of NSCs, which is often inhibited by amyloid beta (Aβ) (25-35), by activating the PI3K pathway. Studies indicate that CoQ10 treatment increases the expression of proteins associated with the PI3K pathway, thereby significantly reversing the inhibitory effects on NSC proliferation.
 
Protective Role of Ubiquinol in Mitigating Cyclosporine Nephrotoxicity
Cyclosporine (CyA) nephrotoxicity, a condition linked to oxidative stress, has garnered significant attention. Among the potential antidotes, ubiquinol (rCoQ10), the reduced form of coenzyme Q10, has emerged as a promising antioxidant. In a preclinical rat study, ubiquinol effectively alleviated the CyA-induced elevations in urinary albumin secretion, serum creatinine, and superoxide anion levels. Furthermore, it mitigated pathological changes in renal tubular cells, thereby exhibiting both antioxidant and renal protective effects.
Exploring the Interaction between Coenzyme Q10 and P-glycoprotein
 
The potential impact of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the intestinal efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a topic of keen interest in understanding food-drug interactions. Given CoQ10's widespread use as a dietary supplement, its potential to influence P-gp activity could significantly affect drug absorption. However, research suggests that further studies are needed to comprehensively understand this interaction and ensure that adverse effects are avoided in clinical settings.
 
The Significance of Coenzyme Q10 in Diabetic Nephropathy
In a study focusing on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats, the renoprotective effects of monosodium mangiferin (MGM) were examined. MGM was found to improve renal ferroptosis in STZ-induced DN rats by augmenting antioxidant defenses, including the glutathione peroxidase 4 and ferroptosis inhibitory protein 1/coenzyme Q10 axis. This suggests that MGM's protective effects on the kidneys may be mediated through the regulation of CoQ10-related antioxidant mechanisms.
 
The Multifaceted Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Immune Function
Coenzyme Q10 plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune system function, encompassing various aspects from cellular metabolism to inflammatory regulation. Its antioxidant properties contribute significantly to protecting cells from oxidative stress, while its involvement in mitochondrial energy production ensures the efficient functioning of immune cells. Furthermore, CoQ10 has been shown to modulate immune responses, potentially aiding in the management of various inflammatory conditions.
 
The Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Acute Influenza
Research into acute influenza has revealed that CoQ10 levels in patients are considerably lower than those in healthy individuals (0.53 μg/mL compared to 0.72 μg/mL). Moreover, lower CoQ10 levels correlate with heightened inflammatory biomarkers, such as IL-2, TNF-alpha, and VEGF, suggesting that during acute influenza infection, CoQ10 may be consumed in vast quantities due to excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. Although this connection is tenuous and requires further investigation, it hints at a possible link between decreased CoQ10 levels and the severity of influenza.
 
Potential Benefits of Coenzyme Q10 on Human Oocyte Quality
When taken as a supplement, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has shown positive effects on the oocytes of older women (aged 38 and above) during in vitro maturation (IVM). Specifically, it significantly improves the oocyte maturation rate, decreases the occurrence of post-meiotic aneuploidy and chromosomal aneuploidy, enhances egg quality and maturity, and counteracts the decline in fertility associated with age. Additionally, CoQ10 safeguards oocytes from aging, maintains their fertilization potential by reducing cell fragments, improving fertilization rates, correcting meiotic defects, stabilizing intracellular structures, and reducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. This underscores the significant potential of CoQ10 in improving quality in assisted reproductive technology (ART).
 
Protective Impact of Coenzyme Q10 on Vascular Endothelial Cell
The reduced form of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)H(2)) effectively mitigates oxidative stress damage induced by H2O2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). It achieves this by diminishing the number of β-galactosidase-positive cells, which are markers of senescence, and by suppressing the expression of genes related to senescence. Simultaneously, it elevates the cell's antioxidant capacity, inhibits apoptosis, and safeguards mitochondrial function.
 
Benefits of Coenzyme Q10 for Metabolic Syndrome
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation has beneficial effects on adipokine regulation and the reduction of inflammation and lipid peroxidation in individuals with metabolic syndrome. The study found that CoQ10 supplementation significantly increased adiponectin levels, decreased inflammatory markers, and improved lipid peroxidation. These improvements were linked to better blood sugar control, enhanced liver function, and lower malondialdehyde levels. These findings underscore the critical role of CoQ10 in modulating adipokines and promoting metabolic health.
 
 
Food Applications
Efficacy, Safety, and Formulation Challenges of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation
Coenzyme Q10 is a vital dietary supplement in addressing the global challenges of aging and non-communicable diseases. It ranks as the third most sold supplement on the market and shows promise in treating common causes of mortality such as heart disease. However, ensuring its efficacy and safety, as well as overcoming formulation challenges, remain significant tasks for scientists, nutritionists, physicians, and policymakers. The study underscores the necessity of a comprehensive understanding of CoQ10 absorption and metabolism to guide its clinical application.
 
Application of Coenzyme Q10 in Food Systems
Research into the application of CoQ10 in food systems, particularly the effects of nanoemulsion structures and food matrices on its gastrointestinal absorption and bioavailability, has shown promising results. Specifically, a CoQ10 nanoemulsion (particle size ~200 nanometers) using octenyl succinic anhydride-modified starch as an emulsifier was found to enhance CoQ10 absorption during digestion. In high-protein beverages containing this nanoemulsion, bioavailability increased by 1.8 to 2.8 times compared to CoQ10 dissolved directly in oil. This study highlights the beneficial impact of lipolysis during digestion on the absorption of hydrophobic bioactive components, suggesting that food systems can be effective carriers for improving the oral bioavailability of CoQ10.
 
Food-Grade Composite Nanoparticles for Co-Delivery of Resveratrol and Coenzyme Q10
In food science, the potential for co-delivering resveratrol and CoQ10 through composite nanoparticles prepared by emulsification evaporation was explored. Utilizing rhamnolipids, this method improves the efficiency and stability of nutraceutical delivery. This technology not only enhances the chemical stability of both active ingredients but also promotes their sustained release during digestion. It provides a new approach for developing functional foods or dietary supplements containing these potent antioxidant ingredients, showcasing the versatility and potential of CoQ10 as a key ingredient in health products.
 
Core-Shell Nanoparticle Co-Encapsulation Technology
Coenzyme Q10 and piperine can be synergistically delivered using core-shell nanoparticles, with a hydrogel shell made from zein and κ-carrageenan. This construction enhances the stability and retention rate of these nutrients. The nanotechnology prolongs the half-life of CoQ10 and piperine, significantly improving their retention during heat treatment and long-term storage. It also allows control over nutrient release rates in the gastrointestinal environment by adjusting the degree of interfacial cross-linking, demonstrating the effectiveness of core-shell nanoparticles as a platform for the co-delivery of synergistic nutritional health products.
 
Bioavailability of Coenzyme Q10
The bioavailability of CoQ10 is highly influenced by its dispersion state within the supplement, with improper formulations potentially reducing absorption efficiency by up to 75%. Analyzing the entire process of CoQ10—from ingestion and gastrointestinal transit to lymphatic absorption, blood distribution, and intracellular utilization—highlights the importance of the crystalline state of CoQ10 in formulations. Additionally, the study compares the relative absorption efficiency of the ubiquinone and ubiquinol forms, emphasizing the need for precise formulation to optimize bioavailability.
 
 
Transmitter Delivery/Biotechnology
Cubes as an Oral Drug Delivery System Enhance the Hepatoprotective Effects of Coenzyme Q10
The unique nanostructure system of cubes significantly enhances the oral bioavailability and hepatoprotective activity of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). In animal experimental models, CoQ10 cubes effectively reduced liver damage caused by thioacetamide (TAA), as evidenced by improvements in multiple biochemical indicators and histopathological characteristics compared to the untreated group.
 
Optimized Design of Liposomes Loaded with Coenzyme Q10 and D-panthenol Triacetate
Using response surface methodology, the study optimized a liposome formulation to co-deliver CoQ10 and D-panthenol triacetate (PTA) to improve skin permeability. These optimized liposomes achieved high encapsulation efficiency, moderate particle size, and uniform morphology. Release experiments indicated that PTA was released quickly while CoQ10 was released slowly, demonstrating effective control of the release kinetics for potential topical applications.
 
Crystalline Loading of Lipophilic Coenzyme Q10 in Conjugated Carbon Aerogel Derivatives
A simple and economical liquid phase impregnation method successfully loaded CoQ10 in crystalline form into carbon aerogels with microstructures regulated by graphene oxide. The introduction of π-conjugated (sp2) bonds significantly enhanced the adsorption rate and total loading capacity of CoQ10. The loaded CoQ10 exhibited a newly reported crystalline morphology, showcasing the benefits of crystalline drug delivery and providing a novel approach to controlling the microstructure of lipophilic drugs.
 
Nanoemulsion-Loaded Hydrogel Based on Copaiba Oil and Coenzyme Q10
To address the low water solubility and poor skin penetration of CoQ10, a nanoemulsion containing CoQ10 and copaiba oil was embedded in hydrogels. This formulation significantly improved the skin penetration and bioavailability of CoQ10. The NECQ10g hydrogel demonstrated small particle size, uniform distribution, good stability, and cell safety. Compared to the control group, NECQ10g effectively promoted fibroblast activity and improved protection against oxidative damage and tissue repair capabilities.
 
Supercritical Adsorption Precipitation of Coenzyme Q10 on Sodium Alginate Aerogel
Using supercritical adsorption precipitation (SAP) technology, CoQ10 was efficiently loaded into PGX-treated sodium alginate aerogels. This composite material exhibited a uniform fibril coating and porous structure, reducing the crystallinity of CoQ10 and improving its water dispersibility and suspension stability. The optimized SAP parameters ensured long-term stable storage characteristics, highlighting the potential of combining PGX technology with SAP for developing hydrophobic bioactive substance delivery systems.
 
Development of New High-Stability Coenzyme Q10 Mixed Micelles
Guided by thermodynamic turbidity theory, a new mixed micelle system of CoQ10-polyoxyethylene stearate (S40)-Kolliphor HS15 was designed. This system achieved higher turbidity points and stability than traditional single micelle systems. After optimizing the ratio, the mixed micelle system maintained high stability even after sterilization, demonstrated by a decrease in particle number and size but little change in transmittance and turbidity point, proving its efficacy as a CoQ10 delivery carrier.
 
Drug Delivery and Stability Enhancement
A microemulsion system based on a mixture of sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 efficiently dissolved peppermint oil and stabilized CoQ10, preventing its degradation. In this formulation, CoQ10 remained dissolved and undegraded under 302 nm ultraviolet light, effectively protecting its stability and bioavailability.
 
 
Agricultural and Aquatic Applications
Improves Reproductive Function
In agriculture and aquaculture, supplementing the diet of elderly broiler breeder roosters with CoQ10 significantly improved testicular function and fertilization ability. Studies showed that increased dietary levels of CoQ10 enhanced semen quality, sperm motility, and testosterone concentration, indicating a positive effect on combating oxidative stress and maintaining reproductive health.
 
Enhances Growth and Immunity of Aquatic Animals
For aquaculture animals like Nile tilapia, the combined supplementation of CoQ10 and vitamin C significantly improved growth rate, immunity, and disease resistance. Experimental data indicated that adding CoQ10 and vitamin C to feed optimized digestive enzyme activity, improved blood biochemical indicators, enhanced antioxidant capacity, and related gene expression, thereby improving resistance to pathogens such as Streptococcus agalactiae.
 
Promotes Growth and Antioxidant Defense in Young Fish
In a feeding trial with European sea bass larvae, CoQ10 supplementation (particularly at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg) was most effective in promoting growth, improving feed utilization, enhancing survival rate, and optimizing antioxidant enzyme activities (such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase). This demonstrated CoQ10's significant positive effect on the early development and antioxidant defense mechanisms of larval fish.
 
Alleviates Oxidative Stress
In largemouth bass, CoQ10 was shown to alleviate stress responses caused by oxidized fish oil. This was evidenced by increased weight gain, reduced liver damage indicators (such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity), protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (including EPA and DHA) from oxidative damage, and regulation of gene expression to reduce immune system over-activation. This underscores CoQ10's role in anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and maintaining cell membrane stability.
 
 
References:
1. Juan Diego Hernández-Camacho et al. Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease. Frontiers in physiology(2018)
2. María Alcázar-Fabra et al. Clinical syndromes associated with Coenzyme Q10 deficiency. Essays in biochemistry(2018)
3. Maureen Chase et al. Coenzyme Q10 In Acute Influenza. Influenza and other respiratory viruses(2019)
4. Amira Mohamed Mohsen et al. Cubosomes as a Potential Oral Drug Delivery System for Enhancing the Hepatoprotective Effect of Coenzyme Q10. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences(2021)
5. David Villanueva-Bermejo et al. Optimization of coenzyme Q10 encapsulation in liposomes using supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of CO2 Utilization(2020)
6. Alma Martelli et al. Coenzyme Q10: Clinical Applications in Cardiovascular Diseases. Antioxidants(2020)
7. Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal et al. Coenzyme Q10: From bench to clinic in aging diseases, a translational review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition(2018)
8. David Mantle et al. Coenzyme Q10, Ageing and the Nervous System: An Overview. Antioxidants(2022)
9. Yorihiro Yamamoto et al. Coenzyme Q10 redox balance and a free radical scavenger drug. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics(2016)
10. Fiammetta Nigro et al. Development, characterization and in vitro toxicity evaluation of nanoemulsion-loaded hydrogel based on copaiba oil and coenzyme Q10. COLLOIDS and SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL and ENGINEERING ASPECTS(2020)
11. Xuan Ma et al. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid protects neuronal cells from ferroptosis through inhibiting labile iron accumulation and preventing coenzyme Q10 reduction. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications(2022)
12. Nao Matsushita et al. Enhanced water dispersibility of coenzyme Q10 by complexation with albumin hydrolysate. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2013)
13. Carmen Venegas et al. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2011)
14. Toshikazu Sato et al. Effect of reduced form of coenzyme Q10 on cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Experimental and Clinical Transplantation(2013)
15. Istvan Lekli et al. Coenzyme Q9 provides cardioprotection after converting into coenzyme Q10. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2008)
16. Benkai Qin et al. PEGylated Solanesol for Oral Delivery of Coenzyme Q 10 . Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry(2017)