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Spermidine trihydrochloride: Its Potent Effects and Applications

Time:2024-07-01 Hits:320
Spermidine trihydrochloride (CAS No: 334-50-9), trihydrochloride of a natural polyamine found in organisms, is an organic compound featuring multiple amine groups. It boasts numerous biological functions, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, the enhancement of mitochondrial metabolic function, and the improvement of protein homeostasis. Additionally, spermidine exhibits beneficial effects in the fight against various age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration.



Product Information

Alias : N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine trihydrochloride
CAS No .:  334-50-9
Molecular formula : C7H22Cl3N3
Molecular weight : 254.63

Product
CAS Number
Level
Packaging
Spermidine trihydrochloride
334-50-9
Pharmaceutical Grade
1kg 25kg
Spermidine trihydrochloride
334-50-9
Food Grade
1kg 25kg


Spermidine Effects

Antioxidant Activity: Spermidine exhibits robust antioxidant activity, effectively reacting with free radicals to mitigate the oxidative damage they inflict on cells. Within the body, spermidine also upregulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes, thereby augmenting overall antioxidant capacity.

Energy Metabolism Regulation: Spermidine is integral to regulating energy metabolism in organisms. It enhances the absorption and utilization of glucose post-ingestion, and impacts the balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by modulating mitochondrial energy production efficiency.

Growth and Immune Regulation: Spermidine plays a pivotal role in growth and immune regulation. It stimulates the secretion of growth hormone, contributing to the development of various tissues and organs. Additionally, in immune regulation, spermidine fortifies the body's resilience against viruses and diseases by modulating white blood cell production and promoting the elimination of reactive oxygen species.

Delaying Aging: Spermidine enhances autophagy, a cellular cleanup process that eliminates damaged organelles and proteins, thus contributing to aging delay.

Improves Reproductive Health: During reproductive aging, spermidine levels decline, and supplementation with spermidine may aid in improving ovarian function and extending reproductive lifespan.

Glial Cell Regulation: Spermidine plays a significant regulatory role in glial cells. It participates in cell signaling systems and functional connections between nerve cells, playing a crucial role in neuron development, synaptic transmission, and resistance to neuropathy.

Cardiovascular Protection: In the cardiovascular system, spermidine reduces lipid accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques, mitigates cardiac hypertrophy, and enhances diastolic function, thereby providing cardiac protection. Moreover, dietary intake of spermidine improves blood pressure and reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.


Medical Field

- Spermidine significantly enhanced the angiogenic capacity of aging endothelial cells, thereby promoting neovascularization in aging mice under ischemic conditions, demonstrating potential therapeutic benefits for ischemic cardiovascular disease.
- Spermidine effectively alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by reducing ROS, ERS, and Pannexin-1-mediated iron deposition, improving cardiac function, and minimizing myocardial damage in diabetic mice and cardiomyocytes.
- Spermidine, a natural polyamine, possesses not only age-protective properties that extend biological lifespan but also potential anti-tumor effects, including the enhancement of mitochondrial function and promotion of autophagy.
- Spermidine effectively alleviates obesity and metabolic disorders by activating brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, improving insulin resistance, and reducing hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in mice.
- As a natural polyamine, spermidine not only maintains telomere length and delays aging but also enhances autophagy, contributing to lifespan extension and reduction in age-related diseases across various model systems.
- Spermidine promotes the clearance of hepatitis B virus by upregulating the expression of IL-21 and IFN-gamma, offering a potential new drug candidate for hepatitis B treatment.
- Spermidine shows the potential to dissolve beta-amyloid plaques, has a close relationship with age and memory abilities, and may serve as a biomarker for neurocognitive changes like dementia.
- Spermidine effectively safeguards the kidney from ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting DNA nitration and PARP1 activation, presenting a novel treatment strategy for acute kidney injury.
- Spermidine significantly reduces lung inflammation, neutrophil counts, lung tissue damage, collagen accumulation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, aiding in the prevention or treatment of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis.
- In LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia, spermidine inhibits the production of NO, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α via the NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK pathways, demonstrating significant anti-inflammatory effects.
- Spermidine possesses robust antioxidant activity and can effectively scavenge DPPH, H₂O₂, and hydroxyl radicals, prevent DNA oxidation, and upregulate the expression of antioxidant enzymes, indicating its potential in preventing ROS-related diseases.


Food Field

- Spermidine has demonstrated the potential to prevent and treat symptoms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and type II diabetes, pointing to its broad application prospects in functional foods that significantly benefit metabolic health.
- Spermidine can enhance the abundance of Lachnospiraceae bacteria and strengthen the intestinal barrier function in obese mice, revealing its potential benefits for intestinal health in the food industry.
- Spermidine can effectively alleviate obesity and metabolic disorders by activating brown fat and skeletal muscle. Its promising food applications include combating obesity and boosting metabolic health.
- Dietary spermidine supplementation may lengthen telomeres, thereby influencing the aging process. Further research is needed to explore its food applications and the longevity potential of spermidine through autophagy induction. Based on current findings, its food applications for life extension and anti-aging are eagerly anticipated.
- Spermidine significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of Nb CAR-T cells against lymphoma cells by promoting proliferation and memory. Its potential food applications in immune enhancement deserve further exploration.
- After one year of consumption, spermidine has a positive impact on the memory of Alzheimer's patients, and its potential value in food applications will be thoroughly explored.


Agricultural Field

- Spermidine is utilized to preserve citrus, significantly reducing fruit drop while maintaining the fruit's quality and flavor. It can effectively enhance plant immunity when applied
- Spermidine has demonstrated the potential to mitigate oxidative stress in the silk glands of Bombyx mori, offering silkworm farmers a valuable antioxidant for use in silkworm rearing.


References:

1. Ueno D. et al. Spermidine improves angiogenic capacity of senescent endothelial cells, and enhances ischemia-induced neovascularization in aged mice. Circulation. 2023; doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.123.010052.
2. Sun J. et al. (2023). Exogenous spermidine alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy via suppressing reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and Pannexin-1-mediated ferroptosis. BioMolecules and Biomedicine, 2023.
3. Zimmermann A. et al. (2023). Molecular targets of spermidine: implications for cancer suppression. Cell stress, Karl Franzens Univ Graz.
4. Wang D. et al. (2021). Oral Spermidine Targets Brown Fat and Skeletal Muscle to Mitigate Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 65(21), e2100184.
5. Sharma P, Jaiswal RK. (2021). Spermidine maintains telomere length and delays aging. Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics.
6. Pekar T. et al. (2020). Spermidine in dementia: Relation to age and memory performance. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 132, 42–46.
7. Kim J. Spermidine is protective against kidney ischemia and reperfusion injury through inhibiting DNA nitration and PARP1 activation. Anat Cell Biol. 2017;50(3):200-206.
8. Choi YH, Park HY. Anti-inflammatory effects of spermidine in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. J Biomed Sci. 2012;19:31. doi:10.1186/1423-0127-19-31.
9. Wang D. et al. (2021).  Oral Spermidine Targets Brown Fat and Skeletal Muscle to Mitigate Diet‐Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 65(19), 2100315.
10. Sharma, P. et al. (2021). Spermidine maintains telomere length and delays aging. Central Asian Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ethics.
11. Wang, H. et al. (2022). Spermidine Promotes Nb CAR-T Mediated Cytotoxicity to Lymphoma Cells Through Elevating Proliferation and Memory. OncoTargets and Therapy, 15, 10867-10883.
12. Pekar, T. et al. (2024). The positive effect of spermidine in older adults suffering from dementia after 1 year. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 126(13-14), 473-478.